The State of Chhattisgarh has the geographical are of 1,37,360 Sq.km . The State is divided into 5 river basins. Mahanadi Basin drains out 75546 Sq.km., Godavari Basin drains out 39577 sq.km., Ganga basin drains out 18808 Sq.km and Narmada basin drains out 2113 Sq.km. of catchment area in the state.
44.84% of the area is covered with forest. Net sown area is 4.828 Million hectares and gross sown area is 5.788 Million hectares. The usable water wealth in the state has been assessed as 41720 Million Cubic meter out of which,7603 M.Cum of water is being utilized by completed and ongoing projects in the state.
The total potential of 1.55 hectares has been created as on 31st March2004. At the time of formation of the state, the created potential was 1.328 Million hectares. Thus additional potential of 0.222 Million hectares has been created after the formation of the state, up to March-2004. The irrigation percentage to net sown area is 32.10% and with respect to gross sown area is 26.78%.
There are 3 major, 30 medium and 2067 minor completed projects and 7 major, 8 medium and 748 Minor projects are under construction in the state as on March-2004. The completed major projects include Tandula, Kodar and Pairy and major projects under construction include Hasdeo Bango, Mahanadi Reservoir, Sondur, Jonk, Kelo, Rajeev Samoda and Tandula Lining.
After formation of the state, special attention towards development in irrigation sector has been given. During 1999-2000, an allotment of 103.41 crores was made available in irrigation projects of Chhattigarh area. During 2000-01, the allotment was 162.46 crores the plan ceiling during 2001-2002 was increased to 200.16 crores, during 2002-2003 increased to 392.23 crores, during 2003-2004 it was 401.92 crores. Budget provision for 2004-05 for plan works is 756.08 crores. The ceiling for xth plan(2002-07) has been fixed for Rs.2455.62 crores for wate resources department as against state plan of 11000 crores which is about 22% of state ceiling . The target for creation of additional irrigation potential has been fixed as 3,60,000 ha. during Xth plan.
The irrigation projects are being funded by various agencies like Nabard and A.I.B.P.(Accelerated irrigation Benefit Programme of GOI). The incomplete minor project are being funded by Nabard under Rural Infrastructure Development Fund(RIDF). Similarly incomplete major/medium projects are being funded under AIBP.
From 1996-97onwards till March 2004, 263 schemes have received financial assistance under RIDF in various phases for design- irrigation of 1,42,242 hectares amounting to RS.540.64 crores (Nabard share-468.85 crores and state share 71.79 crores) . Out of the above,87 projects have been completed till March 2004 and balcnce projects are being completed in phased manner. Similarly, 5 projects viz. Hasdeo Bango Major project, Jonk Division Major project, Shivnath Division Medium project, Kosarteda Medium project and Barni Medium projects received financial assistance under AIBP, out of which Shivnath diversion medium project has been completed . The remaining projects are also being completed in phased manner. In addition to the above 18 anicuts are under construction in Rain-shadow district of the state.
Various interstate projects / issues with neighbouring states are under negotiations. The Indravati Joranalla water dispute with Orissa, projects like lb, Upper Jonk with the orissa, projects like Inchampalli and Polavaram with Andhra Pradesh, project like Kanhar with Jharkhan and Banjar Medium project with Madhya Pradesh are the current issues of Chharrisgarh interest.
The Government is thus making all efforts for fulfillment of its commitment of raising the standard of poor section of society by way of development in irrigation sector.
Nature has been kind to Chhattisgarh in terms of rainfall as compared ot several other states of the Union . Average rainfall in the state is around 1400 mm. About 90% of the total rainfall occurs in the Monsoon season i.e. July to September . But due to large variation in the yearly rainfall, the agriculture of the state which is mainly Paddy, is affected . It is obvious that irrigation is the prime need of the state.
The total geographical area of the state is 137,360 Sq. Kms. Nearly 44% of it is covered by forests. The main sources of water in the state are Rivers , Tanks and Ground Water . The state has important rivers such as Mahanadi, Sheonath, Indravati, Arpa, Hasdeo, Kelo, Rehar etc. providing a lifeline to the socio-economic development of the state. The geographical area of the state can be divided into five river basins-
75,546 Sq. Km.
39,577 Sq. Km.
18,808 Sq. Km.
2,113 Sq. Km.
1,316 Sq. Km.
Total 137,360 Sq. Km.
Out of the total 59.90 Thousand Million Cum. Surface water , the usable surface water wealth in the state is 41.72 Thousand Million Cum., and only about 7.50 Thousand Million Cum. is tapped at present . Similarly , 11600 M.Cum. ground-water can be utilized out of the total 13678 M.Cum. in state.
The Irrigated area in the state is about 3/4 of the total cultivated area whereas potential exists to bring, about 1/4 cultivable area under irrigation .
The state has a history of tanks built in village since Kalchuri Kings and nearly every village has a small tank for the daily needs of villagers. Recent neglect of traditional water preservation practice has led to recurrent draughts in the state. This has forced the state government to take up Irrigation projects on top priority with an ultimate aim of achieving 75% irrigation potential.
Average rainfall in the state is around 1400mm and the entire state falls under Rice-agro-climatic zone. Since there is variation in the yearly rainfall it directly affects the agriculture which is mainly paddy. Obviously, irrigation is the prime need of the state for its all-round development and the state government has given it top priority. About 75% irrigation in the state is by canals and the rest is by wells, tanks and tube wells. Net sown area of the Chhattisgarh state is 4.828 Million hectares and the gross sown area is 5.7888 Million hectares.
Till the formation of the state(i.e.1st November 2000) irrigation potential of 1.328 Million hectares could be created which was 23% of the grass sown area. An additional irrigation potential of 222,000 hectares has since been created till March2004 by major, Medium and Minor irrigation schemes, totaling to 1.55 Million hectares which is 26.78% if the gross sown area and 32.10% of the net area.
With an ultimate aim of achieving 75% irrigation the state has taken up many important project and also speed-up many ongoing projects. It is aimed to achieve about 1.771 Million hectares(30.6%) irrigation potential at the end of March 2007 . A total of 3 Major, 30 Medium and 2067 Minor project have been completed and 6 Major, 7 Medium and 448 Minor projects are ongoing, as on year ending March2004.
Apart from state budget the irrigation projects are also being funded by NABARD and AIBP of Central Government.